Department of Anatomy is an essential component of MBBS program, refers to Introduction to gross anatomy of the whole human body, based on a study of prosected human specimens. The main topics for study include: general topographical and descriptive anatomy, and the musculoskeletal, nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive systems. The students are trained to examine the macroscopic (gross anatomy) and microscopic (histology and cell biology) structure of the body, anatomy of the developing body (developmental anatomy or embryology) and evolutionary or comparative anatomy including biological anthropology.
Teaching –Learning Methodology
The course content in anatomy is delivered in two semesters of six months each, comprises of 680 teaching hours, adopting integrated learning format in combination with other preclinical subjects e.g. physiology and Biochemistry. The faculty formulate the learning objectives based on the course objectives and use appropriate T-L methodology for training sessions, which includes didactic lectures, tutorials, lecture cum demonstration, interactive lectures, problem solving session, flip class room and structured quiz session on dissection videos of different parts of the body. ?
Laboratory sessions include hands on skill development for human body dissection, identification of dissected human body parts, histological characteristics of different cells and tissue preparation, osteology, radiology including X-ray, CT scan and MRI scan using Objective structured practical examination (OSPE), presentations of clinical case scenario, and debriefing of problem-solving skills.
The department has been provided with air-conditioned lecture theatre of 200 capacity equipped with IT compatible LCD presentation facilities, conventionalOHP and white board to facilitate blended teaching learning sessions. For small group teaching, there are two-demonstration rooms with 80 seating capacity.
For practicing laboratory and clinical skills, the department of anatomy has well ventilated dissection hall, cold storage room for cadavers, histology lab, well developed museum having human specimens with catalogues, normal and abnormal X-rays, CT scans and MRI, well marked assorted and loose bone sets for self study of bones.
Course objectives and contents
*The broad goal of the teaching of undergraduate students in Anatomy aims at providing comprehensive knowledge of the gross and microscopic structure and development of human body to provide a basis for understanding the clinical correlation of organs or structures involved and the anatomical basis for the disease presentations.
At the end of the course the student should be able to comprehend the normal disposition, clinically relevant interrelationships, functional and cross sectional anatomy of the various structures in the body.identify the microscopic structure and correlate elementary ultra-structure of various organs and tissues and correlate the structure with the functions as a prerequisite for understanding the altered state in various disease processes.
Comprehend the basic structure and connections of the central nervous system to analyse the integrative and regulative functions of the organs and systems. He/She should be able to locate the site of gross lesions according to the deficits encountered.
Demonstrate knowledge of the basic principles and sequential development of the organs and systems, recognise the critical stages of development and the effects of common teratogens, genetic mutations and environmental hazards. He/She should be able to explain the developmental basis of the major variations and abnormalities.
(B) Skills : At the end of the course the student should be able to
identify and locate all the structures of the body and mark the topography of the living anatomy.
identify the organs and tissues under the microscope.?understand the principles of karyotyping and identify the gross congenital anomalies.
understand principles of newer imaging techniques and interpretation of Computerized Tomography (CT) Scan, Sonogram etc.
understand clinical basis of some common clinical procedures i.e., intramuscular & intravenous injection, lumbar puncture and kidney biopsy etc.
From the integrated teaching of other basic sciences, student should be able to comprehend the regulation and integration of the functions of the organs and systems in the body and thus interpret the anatomical basis of disease process.
Outline of the Course Content
The teaching hours for total physiology course will be 480 hrs. which Including Lectures, Practicals, Tutorials, Demonstrations & Seminars. Broad distribution of teaching hours is as given below:
Museum rounds for self study
Group learning sessions
Seminars & Symposium
Integrated T-L sessions
EXAMINATION AND INTERNAL ASSESSMENT:
The internal assessment will be done based on the performance in the first term, second term, and pre-university examination conducted by the departments after conclusion of each term. The university examination will be held at end of one year and is mandatory for all the students to secure 50% marks in theory and practical separately.
Anatomy Department is well equipped with Histology Laboratory, Museum & Lecture Theatre, Dissection Hall, Departmental Office & Art & Photographic Section to provide an insight of microscopic structure and development of human body.
Students of MBBS First professional will be able to comprehend the correlation of organs and their regulative function which may induce various dieses.
Introduction, Definition, Scope of anatomy, Terminology, General Information of tissues of the body i.e. skin, & its appendages, bone, cartilage and joint, muscle fascia bursa, and synovial shath, blood-vessels,anastomosis collateral circulation, lymph nodes and lymphatics, nerve plexuses and ganglia etc. Medico-legal aspects and anatomy Concepts of Anthropology and racial anatomy.
The students will dissect entire body region-wise and will attend & participate in lectures, tutorials, group discussions, quiz seminars, symposia etc., During dissection of each region students and teachers will keep following guidelines in mind.
SKIN: land marks, blood supply(major vessels),lyrnph nodes draining it, dermatornes, cutaneous innervation referred pain, sites of common clinical procedures.
FASCIA: Regional characteristics, name, thickening etc. fascial planes and spaces of clinical importance.
MUSCLES: Gross main bony attachments, exact nerve supply with root value and exact actions of all muscles of extremities, all diaphragms, muscles of eyeball and muscles of branchial origin of head and neck thoracic, abdominal and vertebral muscles should be taught as a ‘group’ without details of attachment. ‘Relations’ of very few main muscles should be expected from students. Contour forming muscles to be noted.
BONES: Bones should be taught and asked in skeletal only(rgional or entire skeletal).Structures attached and related to bones should be shown entirely. More attachments of a structure should be more emphasised than many structures attached on one part. Land marks, movements on joints, sites of common fractures, biopsies etc. should be given more emphasis. Visceral vascular and nervous relations should be given more emphasis. Vertebral curvatures, intervertebral foramina, anomalies, injuries, movements and relations of vertebral column to be emphasised.
“TYPICAL’ and ‘ATYPICAL’ characters of ribs and vertebrae should be shown on skeleton grossly. Numbers and side determination will be automatically non-significant . Sagittal section of the skull and interior of the cranium to be shown. Pelvis for sex determination and age determination from radiograph should be shown for concept. Details of ossification centres are not required.
JOINTS: name, type and variety and type of the movements of all joints should be known. Movements, groups of muscles acting, innervation with root value and dislocation should be given more importance. All details of only very few main joints should be expected.
VESSELS: origin, course, branches, areas supplied by, anastomosis and termination of all main arteries should be known. Detailed relations of very few main arteries to be expected. Pulsations, catheterisation, angiography etc. to be emphasised. In case of veins, commencement, course, tributaries and areas drained by and termination of only main veins must be known. Detailed relations of very few main veins must be known. Portocaval and intercaval anastomosis, vertebral and pelvic venous plexus, i.v. injections, venography, venesections, catheterisation should be given more emphasis.
NERVES-PLEXUSES -GANGLIA: Origin, root value, course- branches, structures supplied by, lesiins and its effects of all nerves should be known. However, detailed relatiois of very few main nerves should be known. Formation, draw and label & branches of Brachial and Lumbosacral plexus of nerves should be done. Autonomic peripheral pathways with ganglia and their lesions should be done.
ORGANS: Gross anatony, gross development, common important anomalies, gross structur and major relations of all organs should be known. All details of very few main organs.
LYMPH NODES: & lymphatic drainage of entire skin & each organ must be known. Detailed lymphatic drainage of very few main organs/areas to be known.
SPACES: areas such as triangles, pyramids, lozenges, fossae boxes etc. should be done in detail. e.g. axilla, femoral triangle etc.
SEROUS MEMBRANES: Salient features of development, reflections, recesses, and applied aspects should be done.
SPECIAL SENSES AND PARANASAL AIR SINUSES
Entire external features & blood supply of brain and spinal cord should be done in detail. Transverse sections of following structures should be done with an aim of identification of level and identification of each structure seen in the section.[Spinal cord, Medulla Oblongata, Pons and mid-brain with coronal and horizontal section of brain.] Ventricles, meninges, c.s.f., projection fibres (internal capsule) , main association fibres and main commissures should be known.Connections & location of Red Nucleus, Substantia Nigra, Olivary nucleus, nu. pontis, Ventral nu., Tectum, Subthalamic and Hypothalamic nu. should be
known. Special sensory, Cieneral sensory Pyramidal and Visceral pathways should be known. Lesions should be given more emphasis.
DEAD: Students should be able to draw on mummy(or on black board with life size human drawing) main organs, points, nerves vessels and spaces of applied importance.
LIVING: ‘Scopies’, ‘stomies’, pulsations, contours, actons of main muscles. Dermatome, landmarks, movements.
Plain films, and special procedures. Of all regions should be shiwn. Clinical details, Preparation of the patient and type of the dye etc. need not be done Only anatomical aspects of the radiograph should be taught, asked and expected.
SECTIONAL ANATOMY & IMAGING TECHNIQUE: Films of the cat- scan and MRI ,ultra sonography of very few main standard levels and similarly few transverse , mid-sagittal and coronal sections of the body should be taught, asked and expected. Identify level and structures in these sections.
Quick review of General histology with human orientation followed by systemic histology. General histology should provide structure and location while systemic study should enable the student to appreciate differential diagnosis & structure- function correlation. General plan and systemic characteristics should be given more importance. Knowledge of main few slides covering all systems and main organs should be expected from the student.
Quick review of General embryology sufficient for students to understand systemic embryology. Systemic embryology should cover narration of development of all organs /parts without detailed explanation and should enable the student to understand clinically important congenital anomalies. Perinatal changes in circulation, Fetal circulation, twinning, in vitro fertilization, teratogens and placentation should be given emphasis
Quick review of basic principles of genetics. Principles regarding inheritance and chromosomal aberration and genetic basis of common syndromes, anomalies, incompatibilities etc. Karyotypes, genetic counseling and chorionic villi sampling diagnosis of correctable fetal disorders
FACILITIES AND INFRASTRUCTURE
RMRI is adopting best practices for tutorials/demonstrations. Department has two demonstration rooms of 60 Sq.M & 75 seating capacity each fitted with strip chairs, over head projector, slide projector, & other audio-visual aids.
The Institute has state-of-the-art air conditioned lecture rooms that are designed spaciously to accommodate the students at a time. All the lecture rooms are facilitated with audio visual equipments including LCD projectors, slide projectors, microphones, etc. Apart from the lecture rooms, all the departments have seminar/demonstration rooms with audio-visual aids. Digital IP cameras are installed to record live lectures, which are converted into digital format for the provision of E-learning. Multi-purpose halls are designed for conducting exams. These halls are well equipped with surveillance system to monitor the students during examination.
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